African countries already account for a significant portion of the world's mineral output, with significant portions of the world's reserves of gold, copper, cobalt, diamonds, manganese and platinumgroup metals (PGM) amongst others.
It shows how large mining firms with significant private authority in South Africa, Ghana and Tanzania are able to engender rules and regulations that are acknowledged by other actors, and in some cases even adopted by the state. In doing so, it establishes that firms are cogoverning Africa's gold mining .
Gold was discovered in the Witwatersrand which led to an influx of miners from around the world 1886 1900 First large gold mining company established and the commencement of the development and the population of Johannesburg increased tenfold in just four years. A .
South Africa's gold industry rising again. After more than a century of gold mining in South Africa, the US Geological Survey's latest estimate still ranks South Africa as the custodian of the world's second largest gold resources at 6,000 tonnes second only to Australia.
Gold mining is extremely dangerous work for children. Yet still today, tens of thousands are found in the smallscale gold mines of Africa, Asia and South America. Children work both above and under ground. In the tunnels and mineshafts they risk death from explosions, rock falls, and tunnel collapse.
Yet mining the ore is just one stage in a long and complex gold mining process. Long before any gold can be extracted, significant exploration and development needs to take place, both to determine, as accurately as possible, the size of the deposit as well as how to extract and process the ore efficiently, safely and responsibly.